Tag Archive | brain

Lobar haemorrhage – an intracerebral bleed (haemorrhagic stroke)…

Lobar haemorrhage – an intracerebral bleed (haemorrhagic stroke) that occurs superficially within the cerebral lobes. In contrast to hypertensive haemorrhages which occur deep within the brain, primary lobar haemorrhages occur superficially due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy. They typically occur in elderly patients and as with any haemorrhage, it is important to consider the possibility of an underlying tumour or vascular malformation. 

This short video tutorial is courtesy of Dr Frank Gaillard and the Radiology Channel.

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

MAGIC DR – a handy mnemonic used to remember…

MAGIC DR – a handy mnemonic used to remember the potential causes of a cerebral ring enhancing lesion.

M – Metastasis

A – Abscess

G – Glioblastoma multiforme

I – Infarct (subacute phase)

C – Contusion

D – Demyelinating disease (eg. tumefactive MS)

R – Radiation necrosis

An alternative is DR MAGIC of course, which is what you may like to call yourself if you can remember the list! Although you can’t possibly know by looking at the single images, for what it is worth, the above cases are; A = metastasis, B = abscess, C = radiation necrosis, D = GBM, E = demyelination, F = contusion.

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Hypertensive haemorrhage – high blood pressure is the most…

Hypertensive haemorrhage – high blood pressure is the most common cause of primary intracerebral haemorrhage (also known as haemorrhagic stroke). Typical locations include:

This short educational video comes to you courtesy of Dr Frank Gaillard and the RadiologyChannel.

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Puff of smoke sign – describes the characteristic angiographic…

Puff of smoke sign – describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moya moya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arterial networks evolving from the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. When viewed angiographically, the abnormal collaterals simulate smoke emanating away from the major arteries. 

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Cord sign – refers to cord-like hyperattenuation with a dural…

Cord sign refers to cord-like hyperattenuation with a dural venous sinus on non-contrast enhanced CT of the brain due to dural venous sinus thrombosis. The sign is most commonly seen with the transverse sinus (as in this case, red arrow) because it runs along the origin of the tentorium approximately in the axial plane such that it is visible on one image. CT venogram in this case confirmed thrombosis (blue arrow).

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Puff of smoke sign – describes the characteristic angiographic…

Puff of smoke sign – describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moyamoya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arterial networks evolving from the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. When viewed angiographically, the abnormal collaterals simulate smoke emanating away from the major arteries.    

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Extradural haemorrhage – a collection of blood between the inner…

Extradural haemorrhage – a collection of blood between the inner surface of the skull and the outer layer of the dura. It is typically due to meningeal arterial bleeding and very often associated with a skull fracture. The lentiform shape of extradural haematoma is classically taught as the major method of distinguishing it from the typically crescent shaped subdural haematoma, however there are other helpful distinguishing signs. Unlike subdural blood, extradural blood is not able to cross skull sutures and cannot extend along dural reflections (falx and tentorium).

The above case shows the typical appearance of an extradural haematoma, with the hyperdense lentiform shaped blood being associated with a skull fracture (blue arrow) and the haematoma stopping precisely at the coronal suture (yellow arrow). 

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Insular ribbon sign – refers to loss of the normal insular…

Insular ribbon sign – refers to loss of the normal insular cortex grey-white differentiation and is one of the earliest imaging sign of middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The insular cortex is located along the Sylvian fissure overlying the external capsule where a ‘ribbon’ of normal cortex should be appreciable (red arrows). In the setting of MCA infarction, cytotoxic oedema leads to hypoattenuation such that the normal insular ribbon is no longer visible (blue arrows).

Case on the left shows a very early infarct (within the first few hours) while the case on the right shows a more established infarct (greater than 4 hours old).

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/

Butterfly glioma – name given to a high grade astrocytoma,…

Butterfly glioma – name given to a high grade astrocytoma, usually a glioblastoma multiforme, which crosses the corpus callosum. The often symmetric projections extending out from the midline simulate butterfly wings. These tumors most frequently occur in the frontal lobes and like all high grade gliomas the prognosis is poor. Rarely cerebral metastasestumefactive demyelination, lymphoma or cerebral toxoplasmosis may mimic this appearance.

from our tumblr blog

http://radiologysigns.tumblr.com/